Utc To Est

This time zone converter lets you visually and very quickly convert UTC to EST and vice-versa. Simply mouse over the colored hour-tiles and glance at the hours selected by the column. UTC stands for Universal Time. EST is known as Eastern Standard Time. Converting EST to UTC. This time zone converter lets you visually and very quickly convert EST to UTC and vice-versa. Simply mouse over the colored hour-tiles and glance at the hours selected by the column. EST stands for Eastern Standard Time. UTC is known as Universal Time. UTC is 4 hours ahead of EST. Exact time now, time zone, time difference, sunrise/sunset time and key facts for UTC+3.


Image © Mark Boyle Australia Day Council of NSW.
Images property of respective artist(s). All rights reserved.

This is such a cool feature and I hadn’t noticed it until recently, even though Microsoft have had a page about it since December.

I live in Adelaide in Australia. And like over a billion other people in the world, Adelaide people have to cope with being on a half-hour time zone. In winter time, we’re UTC+9:30, and in summer time we’re UTC+10:30. Except that if you’re reading this in the northern hemisphere, you’ll need to remember that by ‘winter’, I mean April to October. Summer time is October to April, and Santa Claus sits on the beach with a cold drink, sweating through his thick red suit and beard. Unless he’s out saving lives, of course.

Within Australia, we have three main time zones (Western, Central, and Eastern), but this extends to five in the summer, as the three states which extend to the northern end of Australia (WA, Qld, and NT) don’t try to save any daylight. They’re close enough to the equator to not care, or something like that. It’s loads of fun for the Gold Coast airport, whose runway crosses the NSW-QLD border.

One of my favourite, but often unappreciated, features of SQL 2008 was the data type datetimeoffset. This allows date/time data to be stored with the time zone as well, such as '20160101 00:00 +10:30', which is when we celebrated New Year in Adelaide this year. To see when that was in US Eastern, I can use the function SWITCHOFFSET.

This is the same moment in time, but in a different part of the world. If I were on the phone to someone in North Carolina or New York, wishing them a Happy New Year because it was just past midnight in Adelaide, they would be saying “What do you mean? It’s still breakfast time here on New Year’s Eve!”

The problem is that to do this, I need to know that in January, Adelaide is +10:30 and US Eastern is –5:00. And that’s often a pain. Especially if I’m asking about late March, early April, October, early November – those times of year when people can’t be sure which time zone people in other countries were in because they change by an hour for daylight saving, and they all do so according to different rules. My computer tells me what time zone people are in now, but it’s much harder to tell what time zone they will be in at other times of the year.

Database servers often run in UTC, because it’s simply easier to not have to deal with time zones. Many years ago I remember having to fix a report which listed incidents that occurred along with response times. Measuring SLA was quite straight forward – I could see that one incident happened during the customer’s working hours, and that they responded within one hour. I could see that another incident occurred outside working hours, and the response was within two hours. The problem came when a report was produced at the end of a month when the time zone changed, causing an incident that actually happened at 5:30pm (outside hours) to be listed as if it had occurred at 4:30pm (inside hours). The response had taken about 90 minutes, which was okay, but the report was showing otherwise.

All this is fixed in SQL Server 2016.

Now, instead of saying: '20160101 00:00 +10:30', I can start with a datetime value which does not have a time zone offset, and use AT TIME ZONE to explain that it’s in Adelaide.

And this can be converted to the American time by appending AT TIME ZONE again.

Now, I know this is a lot more longwinded. And I need to explicitly convert the string to datetime, to avoid an error saying:

Argument data type varchar is invalid for argument 1 of AT TIME ZONE function.

But despite the longwindedness of it, I love it, because at no point did I need to figure out that Adelaide was in +10:30, or that Eastern was -5:00 – I simply needed to know the time zone by name. Figuring out whether daylight saving should apply or not was handled for me.

It works by using the Windows registry, which has all that information in it, but sadly, it’s not perfect when looking back in time. Australia changed the dates in 2008, and the US changed its dates in 2005 – both countries saving daylight for more of the year. AT TIME ZONE understands this. But it doesn’t seem to appreciate that in Australia in the year 2000, thanks to the Sydney Olympics, Australia started daylight saving about two months earlier. This is a little frustrating, but it’s not SQL’s fault – we need to blame Windows for that. I guess the Windows registry doesn’t remember the hotfix that went around that year. (Note to self: I might need to ask someone in the Windows team to fix that…)

The usefulness just continues though!

That time zone name doesn’t even need to be a constant. I can pass variables in, and even use columns:

(Because I ran that just before 6:30pm here in Adelaide, which happens to be nearly 9pm in New Zealand where Paul is, and nearly 5am this morning in the eastern bit of America where Aaron is.)

This would let me easily see what time it is for people wherever they are in the world, and to see who would be best to respond to some issue. And even more so, it would let me do it for people in the past. I could have a report which analyses which time zones would allow the greatest number of events to occur during business hours.

Those time zones are listed in sys.time_zone_info, along with what the current offset is, and whether daylight saving is currently applied.

namecurrent_utc_offsetis_currently_dst
Singapore Standard Time+08:000
W. Australia Standard Time+08:000
Taipei Standard Time+08:000
Ulaanbaatar Standard Time+09:001
North Korea Standard Time+08:300
Aus Central W. Standard Time+08:450
Transbaikal Standard Time+09:000
Tokyo Standard Time+09:000

Sampling of rows from sys.time_zone_info

I’m only really interested in what the name is, but anyway. And it’s interesting to see that there is a time zone called “Aus Central W. Standard Time” which is on the quarter-hour. Go figure. Also worth noting that places are referred to using their Standard Time name, even if they’re currently observing DST. Such as Ulaanbaatar in that list above, which isn’t listed as Ulaanbaatar Daylight Time.

Now, I’m sure you’re wondering what the impact of this might be on indexing.

Utc

In terms of the shape of the plan, it’s no different to dealing with datetimeoffset in general. If I have datetime values, such as in the AdventureWorks column Sales.SalesOrderHeader.OrderDate (upon which I created an index called rf_IXOD), then running both this query:

And this query:

In both cases, you get plans that look like this:

But exploring a little more closely, there is a problem.

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The one that uses AT TIME ZONE doesn’t use the statistics very well. It thinks it’s going to see 5,170 rows come out of that Index Seek, when there’s actually only 217. Why 5,170? Well, Aaron’s recent post, “Paying Attention To Estimates,” explains it, by referring to the post “Cardinality Estimation for Multiple Predicates” from Paul. 5,170 is 31,465 (rows in the table) * 0.3 * sqrt(0.3).

The second query gets it right, estimating 217. No functions involved, you see.

Utc to est time difference

This is probably fair enough. I mean – at the point when it’s producing the plan, it won’t have asked the registry for the information it needs, so it really doesn’t know how many to estimate. But there is potential for it to be a problem.

If I add extra predicates which I know can’t be a problem, then my estimates actually drop even further – down to 89.9 rows.

Estimating too many rows means too much memory is allocated, but estimating too few can cause too little memory, with potentially needing a spill to correct the problem (which can often be disastrous from a performance perspective). Go read Aaron’s post for more information about how poor estimates can be bad.

When I consider how to handle displaying values for those people from before, I can use queries like this:

And get this plan:

Est

…which has no such concerns – the right-most Compute Scalar is converting the datetime OrderDate into datetimeoffset for UTC, and the left-most Compute Scalar is converting it into the appropriate time zone for the person. The warning is because I’m doing a CROSS JOIN, and that was fully intentional.

AT TIME ZONE isn’t perfect. But it is really useful – incredibly so. It’s flexible enough to use columns and variables, and I can see a huge amount of potential for it. But if it’s going to cause my estimates to be out, then I’m going to need to be careful. For display purposes, this shouldn’t matter at all though, and that’s where I can see it being most useful.

This really is one of my favourite features of SQL Server 2016. I’ve been crying out for something like this for a very long time.

Oh, and most of those billion people on the half-hour time zone are in India. But you probably already knew that…

EST automatically adjusted to EDT time zone, that is in use

Time Difference

Universal Time Coordinated is 4 hours ahead of Eastern Daylight Time
1:30 pm13:30 in UTC is 9:30 am09:30 in EDT

UTC to EST call time
Best time for a conference call or a meeting is between 1pm-6pm in UTC which corresponds to 8am-1pm in EST

1:30 pm13:30 Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). Offset UTC 0:00 hours
9:30 am09:30 Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). Offset UTC -4:00 hours

1:30 pm13:30 UTC / 9:30 am09:30 EDT

UTCEDT
12am (midnight)8pm
1am9pm
2am10pm
3am11pm
4am12am (midnight)
5am1am
6am2am
7am3am
8am4am
9am5am
10am6am
11am7am
12pm (noon)8am
1pm9am
2pm10am
3pm11am
4pm12pm (noon)
5pm1pm
6pm2pm
7pm3pm
8pm4pm
9pm5pm
10pm6pm
11pm7pm
0:0020:00
1:0021:00
2:0022:00
3:0023:00
4:000:00
5:001:00
6:002:00
7:003:00
8:004:00
9:005:00
10:006:00
11:007:00
12:008:00
13:009:00
14:0010:00
15:0011:00
16:0012:00
17:0013:00
18:0014:00
19:0015:00
20:0016:00
21:0017:00
22:0018:00
23:0019:00

Universal Time Coordinated

Offset: UTC is 0 hours ahead Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and is used in Universal

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is the world time standard that regulates clocks and time. It is successor to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). For casual use, UTC is the same as GMT, but is used by the scientific community.
UTC is the time standard commonly used across the world since 1972. It is used in many technical fields, like aviation industry and meteorologists, also used to synchronize time across internet networks.

UTC representations, usage and related time zones

W3C/ISO-8601: International standard covering representation and exchange of dates and time-related data

Utc To Est Dst

  • Z - is the zone designator for the zero UTC/GMT offset, also known as 'Zulu' time
  • +00 - basic short
  • +0000 - basic
  • +00:00 - extended
Email/RFC-2822: Internet Message Format Date Standard, typically used for timestamps in email headers
  • +0000 - sign character (+) followed by a four digit time providing hours (00) and minutes (00) of the offset. Indicates zero hour and zero minutes time differences of the zero meridian.
Military/NATO: Used by the U.S. military, Chinese military and others
  • Zulu - Military abbreviation for UTC
  • Z - short form of 'Zulu'
IANA/Olson: Reflects UTC time zone boundaries defined by political bodies, primarily intended for use with computer programs and operating systems
  • Etc/UCT
  • Etc/UTC
  • Etc/Universal
  • Etc/Zulu
  • UCT
  • UTC
  • Universal
  • Zulu
Time zones with the GMT +0 offset:
  • EGST - Eastern Greenland Summer Time
  • GMT - Greenwich Mean Time
  • WET - Western European Time
  • AZOST - Azores Summer Time
  • UTC - Universal Time Coordinated
  • WT - Western Sahara Standard Time
  • Z - Zulu Time Zone
  • GMT - GMT
  • +00 -

Eastern Standard Time

Offset: EST is 5 hours behind Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and is used in North America

Countries: It is used in following countries: Bahamas, Canada, Haiti, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Mexico, Panama, Turks & Caicos Is, United States

Principal Cities: The largest city in the EST timezone is New York City from USA with population about 8.175 million people. Other major cities in the area are Toronto, Montreal, Brooklyn, Borough of Queens

Daylight Saving: This is a standard timezone, however during summer some places adjust time for one hour forward for daylight saving and observe Eastern Daylight Time (EDT).

End: EST ended and clocks were set one hour forward on Sunday, 14 March 2021, at 2:00 (2:00 am) local time.

Start: EST starts and clocks are set one hour back on Sunday, 07 November 2021, at 2:00 (2:00 am) local time.

French: HNE - Heure Normale de l'Est

Spanish: ET - Tiempo del Este, ET - Zona Sureste

EST representations, usage and related time zones

W3C/ISO-8601: International standard covering representation and exchange of dates and time-related data
  • -05 - basic short
  • -0500 - basic
  • -05:00 - extended
Est
Email/RFC-2822: Internet Message Format Date Standard, typically used for timestamps in email headers
  • -0500 - sign character (-) followed by a four digit time providing hours (05) and minutes (00) of the offset. Indicates five hour and zero minutes time differences to the west of the zero meridian.
Military/NATO: Used by the U.S. military, Chinese military and others
  • Romeo - Military abbreviation for EST
  • R - short form of 'Romeo'
IANA/Olson: Reflects EST time zone boundaries defined by political bodies, primarily intended for use with computer programs and operating systems

Utc To Est Time Zone

  • America/Atikokan
  • America/Cancun
  • America/Cayman
  • America/Coral_Harbour
  • America/Detroit
  • America/Fort_Wayne
  • America/Grand_Turk
  • America/Indiana/Indianapolis
  • America/Indiana/Marengo
  • America/Indiana/Petersburg
  • America/Indiana/Vevay
  • America/Indiana/Vincennes
  • America/Indiana/Winamac
  • America/Indianapolis
  • America/Iqaluit
  • America/Jamaica
  • America/Kentucky/Louisville
  • America/Kentucky/Monticello
  • America/Louisville
  • America/Montreal
  • America/Nassau
  • America/New_York
  • America/Nipigon
  • America/Panama
  • America/Pangnirtung
  • America/Port-au-Prince
  • America/Thunder_Bay
  • America/Toronto
  • Canada/Eastern
  • EST
  • EST5EDT
  • Jamaica
  • US/East-Indiana
  • US/Eastern
  • US/Michigan

Chart Of Utc Time To Est

Time zones with the GMT -5 offset:
  • CDT - Central Daylight Time
  • EST - Eastern Standard Time
  • ET - Eastern Time
  • COT - Colombia Time
  • CST - Cuba Standard Time
  • EASST - Easter Island Summer Time
  • ECT - Ecuador Time
  • PET - Peru Time
  • R - Romeo Time Zone
  • GMT - GMT-05:00
  • -05 -